Linux之NFS网络文件系统

发布日期:2018-02-24    浏览次数:368

  NFS(Network File System)即网络文件系统,是FreeBSD支持的文件系统中的一种,它允许网络中的计算机之间通过TCP/IP网络资源共享。在NFS的应用中,本地NFS的客户端应用可以透明地读写位于远端NFS服务器上的文件,就像访问本地文件一样。

1、好处

(1)节省本地存储空间,将常用的数据存放在一台NFS服务器上且可以通过网络访问,那么本地终端将可以减少自身存储空间的使用。

(2)用户不需要在网络中的每台计算机上都建有Home目录,Home目录可以放在NFS服务器上且可以在网络上被访问使用。

(3)一些存储设备如软驱、CDROM和ZIP等都可以在网络上被别的机器使用。这可以减少整个网络上移动介质设备的数量。

2、组成

NFS体系至少有两个主要部分:一台NFS服务器和若干台客户机,如图所示

客户机可以通过TCP/IP网络远程访问存放在NFS上的数据。

NFS实现是通过RPC服务来实现的

实现过程:

(1)NFS RPC的主要功能是记录每个NFS功能所对应的端口号,并将信息传递给请求数据的NFS客户端,从而实现数据的传输。

(2)NFS服务启动时会随机取用数个端口,并主动向RPC服务注册取用的相关端口信息,RPC服务就知道每个端口对应的NFS功能了,然后RPC会用固定的端口(111)来监听NFS客户端的请求,将正确的NFS端口传给NFS的客户端

服务启动顺序:RPC--》NFS

3、服务器端安装,配置过程

(1)检查是否安装NFS RPC服务

[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa nfs-utils rpcbind
[root@localhost ~]# yum install nfs-utils rpcbind -y
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Setting up Install Process
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
base                                                   | 3.7 kB     00:00     
extras                                                 | 3.4 kB     00:00     
extras/primary_db                                      |  30 kB     00:00     
updates                                                | 3.4 kB     00:00     
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.2.3-75.el6_9 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: nfs-utils-lib >= 1.1.0-3 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libtirpc >= 0.2.1-11 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: keyutils >= 1.4-4 for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: python-argparse for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libgssglue.so.1(libgssapi_CITI_2)(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libgssglue for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libevent for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libtirpc.so.1()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libnfsidmap.so.0()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libgssglue.so.1()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: libevent-1.4.so.2()(64bit) for package: 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
---> Package rpcbind.x86_64 0:0.2.0-13.el6_9.1 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package keyutils.x86_64 0:1.4-5.el6 will be installed
---> Package libevent.x86_64 0:1.4.13-4.el6 will be installed
---> Package libgssglue.x86_64 0:0.1-11.el6 will be installed
---> Package libtirpc.x86_64 0:0.2.1-13.el6_9 will be installed
---> Package nfs-utils-lib.x86_64 0:1.1.5-13.el6 will be installed
---> Package python-argparse.noarch 0:1.2.1-2.1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

==============================================================================
 Package              Arch        Version                  Repository    Size
==============================================================================
Installing:
 nfs-utils            x86_64      1:1.2.3-75.el6_9         updates      336 k
 rpcbind              x86_64      0.2.0-13.el6_9.1         updates       51 k
Installing for dependencies:
 keyutils             x86_64      1.4-5.el6                base          39 k
 libevent             x86_64      1.4.13-4.el6             base          66 k
 libgssglue           x86_64      0.1-11.el6               base          23 k
 libtirpc             x86_64      0.2.1-13.el6_9           updates       82 k
 nfs-utils-lib        x86_64      1.1.5-13.el6             base          71 k
 python-argparse      noarch      1.2.1-2.1.el6            base          48 k

Transaction Summary
==============================================================================
Install       8 Package(s)

Total download size: 716 k
Installed size: 2.0 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/8): keyutils-1.4-5.el6.x86_64.rpm                   |  39 kB     00:00     
(2/8): libevent-1.4.13-4.el6.x86_64.rpm                |  66 kB     00:00     
(3/8): libgssglue-0.1-11.el6.x86_64.rpm                |  23 kB     00:00     
(4/8): libtirpc-0.2.1-13.el6_9.x86_64.rpm              |  82 kB     00:00     
(5/8): nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64.rpm             | 336 kB     00:00     
(6/8): nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-13.el6.x86_64.rpm           |  71 kB     00:00     
(7/8): python-argparse-1.2.1-2.1.el6.noarch.rpm        |  48 kB     00:00     
(8/8): rpcbind-0.2.0-13.el6_9.1.x86_64.rpm             |  51 kB     00:00     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                         1.1 MB/s | 716 kB     00:00     
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing : libgssglue-0.1-11.el6.x86_64                               1/8 
  Installing : libtirpc-0.2.1-13.el6_9.x86_64                             2/8 
  Installing : rpcbind-0.2.0-13.el6_9.1.x86_64                            3/8 
  Installing : python-argparse-1.2.1-2.1.el6.noarch                       4/8 
  Installing : libevent-1.4.13-4.el6.x86_64                               5/8 
  Installing : keyutils-1.4-5.el6.x86_64                                  6/8 
  Installing : nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-13.el6.x86_64                          7/8 
  Installing : 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64                          8/8 
  Verifying  : rpcbind-0.2.0-13.el6_9.1.x86_64                            1/8 
  Verifying  : libtirpc-0.2.1-13.el6_9.x86_64                             2/8 
  Verifying  : keyutils-1.4-5.el6.x86_64                                  3/8 
  Verifying  : libevent-1.4.13-4.el6.x86_64                               4/8 
  Verifying  : nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-13.el6.x86_64                          5/8 
  Verifying  : libgssglue-0.1-11.el6.x86_64                               6/8 
  Verifying  : 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64                          7/8 
  Verifying  : python-argparse-1.2.1-2.1.el6.noarch                       8/8 

Installed:
  nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.2.3-75.el6_9     rpcbind.x86_64 0:0.2.0-13.el6_9.1    

Dependency Installed:
  keyutils.x86_64 0:1.4-5.el6          libevent.x86_64 0:1.4.13-4.el6         
  libgssglue.x86_64 0:0.1-11.el6       libtirpc.x86_64 0:0.2.1-13.el6_9       
  nfs-utils-lib.x86_64 0:1.1.5-13.el6  python-argparse.noarch 0:1.2.1-2.1.el6 

Complete!
[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa nfs-utils rpcbind
rpcbind-0.2.0-13.el6_9.1.x86_64
nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64

(2)安装完成后,启动相关服务

[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa nfs-utils rpcbind
rpcbind-0.2.0-13.el6_9.1.x86_64
nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind status
rpcbind is stopped
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
Starting rpcbind:                                          [  OK  ]
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind status
rpcbind (pid  1958) is running...
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs 
anaconda-ks.cfg     .bashrc             install.log.syslog
.bash_logout        .cshrc              .tcshrc
.bash_profile       install.log         
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs status
rpc.svcgssd is stopped
rpc.mountd is stopped
nfsd is stopped
[root@localhost ~]# rpcinfo -p localhost
   program vers proto   port  service
    100000    4   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    4   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs start
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
[root@localhost ~]# rpcinfo -p localhost
   program vers proto   port  service
    100000    4   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   tcp    111  portmapper
    100000    4   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    3   udp    111  portmapper
    100000    2   udp    111  portmapper
    100005    1   udp  53776  mountd
    100005    1   tcp  45705  mountd
    100005    2   udp  59195  mountd
    100005    2   tcp  37339  mountd
    100005    3   udp  51079  mountd
    100005    3   tcp  42701  mountd
    100003    2   tcp   2049  nfs
    100003    3   tcp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   tcp   2049  nfs
    100227    2   tcp   2049  nfs_acl
    100227    3   tcp   2049  nfs_acl
    100003    2   udp   2049  nfs
    100003    3   udp   2049  nfs
    100003    4   udp   2049  nfs
    100227    2   udp   2049  nfs_acl
    100227    3   udp   2049  nfs_acl
    100021    1   udp  55657  nlockmgr
    100021    3   udp  55657  nlockmgr
    100021    4   udp  55657  nlockmgr
    100021    1   tcp  56873  nlockmgr
    100021    3   tcp  56873  nlockmgr
    100021    4   tcp  56873  nlockmgr

让RPC、NFS服务开机自启,在实际生产环境中都会将配置放在/etc/rc.local下面

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/rc.local 
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/rc.local 
#!/bin/sh
#
# This script will be executed *after* all the other init scripts.
# You can put your own initialization stuff in here if you don't
# want to do the full Sys V style init stuff.

touch /var/lock/subsys/local
/etc/init.d/rpcbind start
/etc/init.d/nfs start

(3)配置服务端NFS配置文件/etc/exports

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/exports 
##nfs server created by cairui at 2018-2-17
/home/cairui 192.168.181.128(rw)
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs 
anaconda-ks.cfg     .bashrc             install.log.syslog
.bash_logout        .cshrc              .tcshrc
.bash_profile       install.log         .viminfo
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs reload
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs restart
Shutting down NFS daemon:                                  [  OK  ]
Shutting down NFS mountd:                                  [  OK  ]
Shutting down NFS services:                                [  OK  ]
Shutting down RPC idmapd:                                  [  OK  ]
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]

4、客户端配置

[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa | grep nfs
nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-13.el6.x86_64
nfs-utils-1.2.3-75.el6_9.x86_64
[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa | grep rpc
rpcbind-0.2.0-13.el6_9.1.x86_64
libtirpc-0.2.1-13.el6_9.x86_64
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind status
rpcbind is stopped
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind start
Starting rpcbind:                                          [  OK  ]
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/rpcbind status
rpcbind (pid  1463) is running...
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs status
rpc.svcgssd is stopped
rpc.mountd is stopped
nfsd is stopped
[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/nfs start
Starting NFS services:                                     [  OK  ]
Starting NFS mountd:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting NFS daemon:                                       [  OK  ]
Starting RPC idmapd:                                       [  OK  ]
[root@localhost ~]# showmount -e 192.168.181.129
Export list for 192.168.181.129:
/home/cairui 192.168.181.128
[root@localhost ~]# ping 192.168.181.129
PING 192.168.181.129 (192.168.181.129) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.181.129: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.348 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.181.129: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.706 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.181.129: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.512 ms
^C
--- 192.168.181.129 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2760ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.348/0.522/0.706/0.146 ms
[root@localhost ~]# iptables -F
[root@localhost ~]# showmount -e 192.168.181.129
Export list for 192.168.181.129:
/home/cairui 192.168.181.128

客户端进行NFS挂载

[root@localhost ~]# mount -t nfs 192.168.181.129:/home/cairui /mnt
[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3              18G  1.4G   16G   9% /
tmpfs                 491M     0  491M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             190M   30M  150M  17% /boot
192.168.181.129:/home/cairui
                       18G  809M   16G   5% /mnt

5、测试

服务端

[root@localhost ~]# cd /home/cairui/
[root@localhost cairui]# touch 1.txt
[root@localhost cairui]# ls -ll /home/cairui/
total 0
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 Feb 17 17:15 1.txt
[root@localhost cairui]# ls -ld /home/cairui/
drwx------. 2 cairui cairui 4096 Feb 17 17:15 /home/cairui/
[root@localhost cairui]# chmod 777 /home/cairui/
[root@localhost cairui]# ls -ld /home/cairui/
drwxrwxrwx. 2 cairui cairui 4096 Feb 17 17:15 /home/cairui/

 [root@localhost cairui]# mkdir nfs

客户端

[root@localhost ~]# cd /mnt/
-bash: cd: /mnt/: Permission denied
[root@localhost ~]# ls -ll /mnt/
ls: cannot open directory /mnt/: Permission denied
[root@localhost ~]# cd /m
media/ mnt/   
[root@localhost ~]# cd /mnt/
[root@localhost mnt]# ls
1.txt
[root@localhost mnt]# ls
1.txt  nfs
[root@localhost mnt]# 

八.启动自动挂载nfs文件系统

格式:<server>:<remote/export>

      </local/directory> nfs <option> 0 0

#vim /etc/fstab

最后一行为后加的

保存退出,重启系统

或者修改

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