深入理解sudo

发布日期:2018-02-25    浏览次数:531
[root@cairui ~]# cat /etc/sudoers
## Sudoers allows particular users to run various commands as
## the root user, without needing the root password.        #sudoers允许特定的用户去执行各种命令以rot的身份,不需要root密码。
##
## Examples are provided at the bottom of the file for collections
## of related commands, which can then be delegated out to particular
## users or groups.
## 
## This file must be edited with the 'visudo' command.

## Host Aliases ## Groups of machines. You may prefer to use hostnames (perhaps using 
## wildcards for entire domains) or IP addresses instead.
# Host_Alias     FILESERVERS = fs1, fs2
# Host_Alias     MAILSERVERS = smtp, smtp2

## User Aliases ## These aren't often necessary, as you can use regular groups ## (ie, from files, LDAP, NIS, etc) in this file - just use %groupname 
## rather than USERALIAS
# User_Alias ADMINS = jsmith, mikem


## Command Aliases ## These are groups of related commands...

## Networking
# Cmnd_Alias NETWORKING = /sbin/route, /sbin/ifconfig, /bin/ping, /sbin/dhclient, /usr/bin/net, /sbin/iptables, /usr/bin/rfcomm, /usr/bin/wvdial, /sbin/iwconfig, /sbin/mii-tool

## Installation and management of software
# Cmnd_Alias SOFTWARE = /bin/rpm, /usr/bin/up2date, /usr/bin/yum ## Services
# Cmnd_Alias SERVICES = /sbin/service, /sbin/chkconfig

## Updating the locate database
# Cmnd_Alias LOCATE = /usr/bin/updatedb

## Storage
# Cmnd_Alias STORAGE = /sbin/fdisk, /sbin/sfdisk, /sbin/parted, /sbin/partprobe, /bin/mount, /bin/umount ## Delegating permissions
# Cmnd_Alias DELEGATING = /usr/sbin/visudo, /bin/chown, /bin/chmod, /bin/chgrp ## Processes
# Cmnd_Alias PROCESSES = /bin/nice, /bin/kill, /usr/bin/kill, /usr/bin/killall ## Drivers
# Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modprobe # Defaults specification

#
# Refuse to run if unable to disable echo on the tty.
#
Defaults !visiblepw

#
# Preserving HOME has security implications since many programs
# use it when searching for configuration files. Note that HOME
# is already set when the the env_reset option is enabled, so
# this option is only effective for configurations where either
# env_reset is disabled or HOME is present in the env_keep list.
#
Defaults    always_set_home

Defaults    env_reset
Defaults    env_keep = "COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE INPUTRC KDEDIR LS_COLORS" Defaults    env_keep += "MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE" Defaults    env_keep += "LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES" Defaults    env_keep += "LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE" Defaults    env_keep += "LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY" #
# Adding HOME to env_keep may enable a user to run unrestricted
# commands via sudo.
#
# Defaults   env_keep += "HOME" Defaults    secure_path = /sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

## Next comes the main part: which users can run what software on 
## which machines (the sudoers file can be shared between multiple
## systems).
## Syntax:
##
##     user    MACHINE=COMMANDS
##
## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it.
##
## Allow root to run any commands anywhere  root    ALL=(ALL)     ALL

## Allows members of the 'sys' group to run networking, software, 
## service management apps and more.
# %sys ALL = NETWORKING, SOFTWARE, SERVICES, STORAGE, DELEGATING, PROCESSES, LOCATE, DRIVERS

## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands
# %wheel    ALL=(ALL)    ALL

## Same thing without a password
# %wheel    ALL=(ALL)    NOPASSWD: ALL

## Allows members of the users group to mount and unmount the 
## cdrom as root
# %users  ALL=/sbin/mount /mnt/cdrom, /sbin/umount /mnt/cdrom

## Allows members of the users group to shutdown this system
# %users  localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now

## Read drop-in files from /etc/sudoers.d (the # here does not mean a comment)
#includedir /etc/sudoers.d

注意:修改完(visudo)之后,需要visudo -c检查一下是否有错误。

sudo -l查看用户拥有的权限。

 

1、sudoers配置文件别名介绍

(1)Host Aliases(主机别名)

    生产环境中一般不会设置主机别名,一般主机别名不太常用

root ALL=(ALL)     ALL    #第一个ALL就是主机别名的应用位置

(2)User Aliases(用户别名)
如果表示用户组那么前面加% 
root ALL=(ALL)     ALL    #root就是用户别名的应用位置
User_Aliases ADMINS = jsmith,mikem

(3)Runas_Alias别名
此别名是指定“用户身份”,即sudo允许切换到的用户
root ALL=(ALL)     ALL    #第二个ALL就是用户别名的应用位置
Runas_Alias OP = root

(4)Cmnd_Alias(命令别名)
就是定义一个别名,它可以包含一堆命令的内容(一组相关命令的集合)
root ALL=(ALL) ALL     Cmnd_Alias DRIVERS = /sbin/modpro 2、sudo日志审计 (1)生产环境中日志方案     a、syslog全部操作日志审计,这种方法信息量大,不便查看       b、sudo日志配置syslog服务进行日志审查       c、堡垒机日志审查     d、bash安装监视器,记录用户使用操作 (2)配合sudo日志审计 安装sudo与syslog服务 

配置服务

创建日志保存目录

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p /var/log/

查看服务器版本,6.x为/etc/rsyslog.conf,5.x版本为syslog.conf

上述为rsyslog的配置文件

 

上述为sudoers的配置文件

测试结果:

[root@localhost ~]# su - cairui
[cairui@localhost ~]$ sudo visudo
[sudo] password for cairui: 
visudo: /etc/sudoers.tmp unchanged
[cairui@localhost ~]$ cd /tmp/ [cairui@localhost tmp]$ touch 123.txt
[cairui@localhost tmp]$ sudo ll sudo: ll: command not found
[cairui@localhost tmp]$ sudo ls -ll
total 0 -rw-rw-r-- 1 cairui cairui 0 Feb 12 09:41 123.txt -rw-------. 1 root   root 0 Feb 9 09:57 yum.log
[cairui@localhost tmp]$ sudo cat /var/log/sudo.log 
Feb 12 09:41:19 : cairui : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/home/cairui ; USER=root ;
    COMMAND=/usr/sbin/visudo
Feb 12 09:41:47 : cairui : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/tmp ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/bin/ls -ll
Feb 12 09:42:12 : cairui : TTY=pts/0 ; PWD=/tmp ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/bin/cat /var/log/sudo.log

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